Dec 14, 2014

Revisiting Andres Bonifacio

by Ignacio BunyeManila Bulletin 
Using both primary historical documents and interpretative accounts of earlier historians, Dr. Guerrero, et. al., are submitting the proposition that:
1. When the plans of a general uprising were discovered, Bonifacio called a general meeting of the Katipunan on August 24, 1896. According to Santiago Alvarez, a thousand people came, indicating that there was already a government working when they declared the national government.
2. In that meeting, the Katipunan assembly made three decisions:
a. They declared a nationwide armed revolution to win freedom from Spain.
b. They established a national government.
c. They elected officials who would lead the nation and the army.
3. From a secret organization, the Katipunan became an open de facto government.
4. This de facto government had its constitution – the Kartilya ng Katipunan. An important document called “Casaysayan” defined the de facto government’s leadership and various positions.
5. Early documents referred to the de facto government as Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan. Haring Bayan means pamahalaan o republika.
6. Katagalugan encompassed not just the Tagalogs but all ethnic groups from the entire archipelago.
7. Katagalugan was preferred over the use of “Filipinas” to symbolize the complete break of the natives or “Indios” from the “Filipinos.” At the time, “Filipinos” referred only to Spaniards born in the islands – the so-called Insulares.
8. Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan had a near complete cabinet: A Secretary of War, a Secretary of State, a Secretary of Interior, a Secretary of Justice, a Secretary of Finance.
9. Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan had a diplomatic component – a “Commission” which tried to negotiate for Japanese political, military, and financial aid. The same “Commission” also tried to touch base with the US and French governments through their consulates in Hong Kong.
10. Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan had its own flag consisting of a red and white sun with the baybayin K in the center.
11. Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan had its own national anthem “Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan” which was composed by Julio Nakpil.
12. Haring Bayan ng Katagalugan commanded the loyalty of a significant portion of the population.
13. While it existed, the government held territory where it exercised the functions of a state, especially in Pasig and Morong.

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